Alzheimer´s References:

  • Alzheimer, A. (1907). Über eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde. Allgemeine Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie und Psychisch-gerichtliche Medizin 64: 146-148.
  • Braak, H. and Braak, E. (1991). Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 82(4): 239-259.
  • Lesne, S., Koh, M.T., Kotilinek, L., Kayed, R., Glabe, C.G., Yang, A., Gallagher, M. and Ashe, K.H. (2006). A specific amyloid-beta protein assembly in the brain impairs memory. Nature 440(7082): 352-357.
  • Cappai, R. and Barnham, K.J. (2008). Delineating the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease A beta peptide neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res 33(3): 526-532.
  • Citron, M. (2010). Alzheimer's disease: strategies for disease modification. Nat Rev Drug Discov 9(5): 387-398.
  • Selkoe, D.J. (2012). Preventing Alzheimer's disease. Science 337(6101): 1488-1492.
  • Sheng, M., Sabatini, B.L. and Sudhof, T.C. (2012). Synapses and Alzheimer's disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4(5).

Glaucoma References:

  • McKinnon, S.J., Lehman, D.M., Kerrigan-Baumrind, L.A., Merges, C.A., Pease, M.E., Kerrigan, D.F., Ransom, N.L., Tahzib, N.G., Reitsamer, H.A., Levkovitch-Verbin, H., Quigley, H.A. and Zack, D.J. (2002). Caspase activation and amyloid precursor protein cleavage in rat ocular hypertension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43(4): 1077-1087.
  • Walsh, D.T., Bresciani, L., Saunders, D., Manca, M.F., Jen, A., Gentleman, S.M. and Jen, L.S. (2005). Amyloid beta peptide causes chronic glial cell activation and neuro-degeneration after intravitreal injection. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 31(5): 491-502.
  • Goldblum, D., Kipfer-Kauer, A., Sarra, G.M., Wolf, S. and Frueh, B.E. (2007). Distribution of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-beta immunoreactivity in DBA/2J glaucomatous mouse retinas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48(11): 5085-5090.
  • Guo, L., Salt, T.E., Luong, V., Wood, N., Cheung, W., Maass, A., Ferrari, G., Russo-Marie, F., Sillito, A.M., Cheetham, M.E., Moss, S.E., Fitzke, F.W. and Cordeiro, M.F. (2007). Targeting amyloid-beta in glaucoma treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(33): 13444-13449.
  • Bruban, J., Glotin, A.L., Dinet, V., Chalour, N., Sennlaub, F., Jonet, L., An, N., Faussat, A.M. and Mascarelli, F. (2009). Amyloid-beta(1-42) alters structure and function of retinal pigmented epithelial cells. Aging Cell 8(2): 162-177.
  • Kipfer-Kauer, A., McKinnon, S.J., Frueh, B.E. and Goldblum, D. (2010). Distribution of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-beta in ocular hypertensive C57BL/6 mouse eyes. Curr Eye Res 35(9): 828-834.
  • Tsuruma, K., Tanaka, Y., Shimazawa, M. and Hara, H. (2010). Induction of amyloid precursor protein by the neurotoxic peptide, amyloid-beta 25-35, causes retinal ganglion cell death. J Neurochem 113(6): 1545-1554.
  • Böhm, N., Gramlich, O. and Grus, F. (2012). Analysis of ß-Amyloid deposition in human glaucomatous retinae, a proteochemcial and immunohistochemical approach. Report: 1-32.
  • Salt, T.E., Nizari, S., Cordeiro, M.F., Russ, H. and Danysz, W. (2014). Effect of the Abeta aggregation modulator MRZ-99030 on retinal damage in an animal model of glaucoma. Neurotox Res 26(4): 440-446.
  • Ratnayaka, J.A., Serpell, L.C. and Lotery, A.J. (2015). Dementia of the eye: the role of amyloid beta in retinal degeneration. Eye (Lond) 29(8): 1013-1026.

Dry AMD References:

  • Bradt, B.M., Kolb, W.P. and Cooper, N.R. (1998). Complement-dependent proinflammatory properties of the Alzheimer's disease beta-peptide. J Exp Med 188(3): 431-438.
  • Mullins, R.F., Russell, S.R., Anderson, D.H. and Hageman, G.S. (2000). Drusen associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain proteins common to extracellular deposits associated with atherosclerosis, elastosis, amyloidosis, and dense deposit disease. FASEB J 14(7): 835-846.
  • Dentchev, T., Milam, A.H., Lee, V.M., Trojanowski, J.Q. and Dunaief, J.L. (2003). Amyloid-beta is found in drusen from some age-related macular degeneration retinas, but not in drusen from normal retinas. Mol Vis 9: 184-190.
  • Yoshida, T., Ohno-Matsui, K., Ichinose, S., Sato, T., Iwata, N., Saido, T.C., Hisatomi, T., Mochizuki, M. and Morita, I. (2005). The potential role of amyloid beta in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. J Clin Invest 115(10): 2793-2800.
  • Malek, G., Johnson, L.V., Mace, B.E., Saloupis, P., Schmechel, D.E., Rickman, D.W., Toth, C.A., Sullivan, P.M. and Bowes Rickman, C. (2005). Apolipoprotein E allele-dependent pathogenesis: a model for age-related retinal degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(33): 11900-11905.
  • Luibl, V., Isas, J.M., Kayed, R., Glabe, C.G., Langen, R. and Chen, J. (2006). Drusen deposits associated with aging and age-related macular degeneration contain nonfibrillar amyloid oligomers. J Clin Invest 116(2): 378-385.
  • Ding, J.D., Lin, J., Mace, B.E., Herrmann, R., Sullivan, P. and Bowes Rickman, C. (2008). Targeting age-related macular degeneration with Alzheimer's disease based immunotherapies: anti-amyloid-beta antibody attenuates pathologies in an age-related macular degeneration mouse model. Vision Res 48(3): 339-345.
  • Bruban, J., Glotin, A.L., Dinet, V., Chalour, N., Sennlaub, F., Jonet, L., An, N., Faussat, A.M. and Mascarelli, F. (2009). Amyloid-beta(1-42) alters structure and function of retinal pigmented epithelial cells. Aging Cell 8(2): 162-177.
  • Tsuruma, K., Tanaka, Y., Shimazawa, M. and Hara, H. (2010). Induction of amyloid precursor protein by the neurotoxic peptide, amyloid-beta 25-35, causes retinal ganglion cell death. J Neurochem 113(6): 1545-1554.
  • Ratnayaka, J.A., Serpell, L.C. and Lotery, A.J. (2015). Dementia of the eye: the role of amyloid beta in retinal degeneration. Eye (Lond) 29(8): 1013-1026.
  • Guymer, R., Cipriani, T., Rittenhouse, K.D., Lim, L., Robman, L.D., Li, W., Wang, W., Deng, S. and Banerjee, P. (2015). Plasma levels of amyloid beta and other proinflammatory mediators in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 253(8): 1347-1354.

Aß References

  • Alzheimer, A. (1907). Über eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde. Allgemeine Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie und Psychisch-gerichtliche Medizin 64: 146-148.
  • Hardy, J.A. and Higgins, G.A. (1992). Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Science 256(5054): 184-185.
  • Lambert, M.P., Barlow, A.K., Chromy, B.A., Edwards, C., Freed, R., Liosatos, M., Morgan, T.E., Rozovsky, I., Trommer, B., Viola, K.L., Wals, P., Zhang, C., Finch, C.E., Krafft, G.A. and Klein, W.L. (1998). Diffusible, nonfibrillar ligands derived from Abeta1-42 are potent central nervous system neurotoxins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(11): 6448-6453.
  • Klein, W.L., Krafft, G.A. and Finch, C.E. (2001). Targeting small Abeta oligomers: the solution to an Alzheimer's disease conundrum? Trends Neurosci 24(4): 219-224.
  • Hardy, J. and Selkoe, D.J. (2002). The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics. Science 297(5580): 353-356.
  • Russo, C., Violani, E., Salis, S., Venezia, V., Dolcini, V., Damonte, G., Benatti, U., D'Arrigo, C., Patrone, E., Carlo, P. and Schettini, G. (2002). Pyroglutamate-modified amyloid beta-peptides--AbetaN3(pE)--strongly affect cultured neuron and astrocyte survival. J Neurochem 82(6): 1480-1489.
  • Selkoe, D.J. (2002). Alzheimer's disease is a synaptic failure. Science 298(5594): 789-791.
  • Walsh, D.M., Klyubin, I., Fadeeva, J.V., Cullen, W.K., Anwyl, R., Wolfe, M.S., Rowan, M.J. and Selkoe, D.J. (2002). Naturally secreted oligomers of amyloid beta protein potently inhibit hippocampal long-term potentiation in vivo. Nature 416(6880): 535-539.
  • Westerman, M.A., Cooper-Blacketer, D., Mariash, A., Kotilinek, L., Kawarabayashi, T., Younkin, L.H., Carlson, G.A., Younkin, S.G. and Ashe, K.H. (2002). The relationship between Abeta and memory in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 22(5): 1858-1867.
  • Chang, L., Bakhos, L., Wang, Z., Venton, D.L. and Klein, W.L. (2003). Femtomole immunodetection of synthetic and endogenous amyloid-beta oligomers and its application to Alzheimer's disease drug candidate screening. J Mol Neurosci 20(3): 305-313.
  • Gong, Y., Chang, L., Viola, K.L., Lacor, P.N., Lambert, M.P., Finch, C.E., Krafft, G.A. and Klein, W.L. (2003). Alzheimer's disease-affected brain: presence of oligomeric A beta ligands (ADDLs) suggests a molecular basis for reversible memory loss. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(18): 10417-10422.
  • Lacor, P.N., Buniel, M.C., Chang, L., Fernandez, S.J., Gong, Y., Viola, K.L., Lambert, M.P., Velasco, P.T., Bigio, E.H., Finch, C.E., Krafft, G.A. and Klein, W.L. (2004). Synaptic targeting by Alzheimer's-related amyloid beta oligomers. J Neurosci 24(45): 10191-10200.
  • Ashe, K.H. (2005). Mechanisms of memory loss in Abeta and tau mouse models. Biochem Soc Trans 33(Pt 4): 591-594.
  • Barghorn, S., Nimmrich, V., Striebinger, A., Krantz, C., Keller, P., Janson, B., Bahr, M., Schmidt, M., Bitner, R.S., Harlan, J., Barlow, E., Ebert, U. and Hillen, H. (2005). Globular amyloid beta-peptide oligomer - a homogenous and stable neuropathological protein in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem 95(3): 834-847.
  • Catalano, S.M., Dodson, E.C., Henze, D.A., Joyce, J.G., Krafft, G.A. and Kinney, G.G. (2006). The role of amyloid-beta derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs) in Alzheimer's disease. Curr Top Med Chem 6(6): 597-608.
  • Hsieh, H., Boehm, J., Sato, C., Iwatsubo, T., Tomita, T., Sisodia, S. and Malinow, R. (2006). AMPAR removal underlies Abeta-induced synaptic depression and dendritic spine loss. Neuron 52(5): 831-843.
  • Lesne, S., Koh, M.T., Kotilinek, L., Kayed, R., Glabe, C.G., Yang, A., Gallagher, M. and Ashe, K.H. (2006). A specific amyloid-beta protein assembly in the brain impairs memory. Nature 440(7082): 352-357.
  • Schilling, S., Lauber, T., Schaupp, M., Manhart, S., Scheel, E., Bohm, G. and Demuth, H.U. (2006). On the seeding and oligomerization of pGlu-amyloid peptides (in vitro). Biochemistry 45(41): 12393-12399.
  • De Felice, F.G., Velasco, P.T., Lambert, M.P., Viola, K., Fernandez, S.J., Ferreira, S.T. and Klein, W.L. (2007). Abeta oligomers induce neuronal oxidative stress through an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent mechanism that is blocked by the Alzheimer drug memantine. J Biol Chem 282(15): 11590-11601.
  • Haass, C. and Selkoe, D.J. (2007). Soluble protein oligomers in neurodegeneration: lessons from the Alzheimer's amyloid beta-peptide. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 8(2): 101-112.
  • Klein, W.L., Lacor, P.N., De Felice, F.G. and Ferreira, S.T. (2007). Molecules that disrupt memory circuits in Alzheimer’s disease: the attack on synapses by Aß oligomers (ADDLs). Memories: Molecules and Circuits.
  • Lacor, P.N., Buniel, M.C., Furlow, P.W., Clemente, A.S., Velasco, P.T., Wood, M., Viola, K.L. and Klein, W.L. (2007). Abeta oligomer-induced aberrations in synapse composition, shape, and density provide a molecular basis for loss of connectivity in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci 27(4): 796-807.
  • Townsend, M., Mehta, T. and Selkoe, D.J. (2007). Soluble Abeta inhibits specific signal transduction cascades common to the insulin receptor pathway. J Biol Chem 282(46): 33305-33312.
  • Walsh, D.M. and Selkoe, D.J. (2007). A beta oligomers - a decade of discovery. J Neurochem 101(5): 1172-1184.
  • Cappai, R. and Barnham, K.J. (2008). Delineating the mechanism of Alzheimer's disease A beta peptide neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res 33(3): 526-532.
  • Cerpa, W., Dinamarca, M.C. and Inestrosa, N.C. (2008). Structure-function implications in Alzheimer's disease: effect of Abeta oligomers at central synapses. Curr Alzheimer Res 5(3): 233-243.
  • Glabe, C.G. (2008). Structural classification of toxic amyloid oligomers. J Biol Chem 283(44): 29639-29643.
  • Selkoe, D.J. (2008). Soluble oligomers of the amyloid beta-protein impair synaptic plasticity and behavior. Behav Brain Res 192(1): 106-113.
  • Shankar, G.M., Li, S., Mehta, T.H., Garcia-Munoz, A., Shepardson, N.E., Smith, I., Brett, F.M., Farrell, M.A., Rowan, M.J., Lemere, C.A., Regan, C.M., Walsh, D.M., Sabatini, B.L. and Selkoe, D.J. (2008). Amyloid-beta protein dimers isolated directly from Alzheimer's brains impair synaptic plasticity and memory. Nat Med 14(8): 837-842.
  • Alberdi, E., Sanchez-Gomez, M.V., Cavaliere, F., Perez-Samartin, A., Zugaza, J.L., Trullas, R., Domercq, M. and Matute, C. (2010). Amyloid beta oligomers induce Ca2+ dysregulation and neuronal death through activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Cell Calcium 47(3): 264-272.
  • Citron, M. (2010). Alzheimer's disease: strategies for disease modification. Nat Rev Drug Discov 9(5): 387-398.
  • Crews, L. and Masliah, E. (2010). Molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Hum Mol Genet 19(R1): R12-R20.
  • Krafft, G.A. and Klein, W.L. (2010). ADDLs and the signaling web that leads to Alzheimer's disease. Neuropharmacology 59(4-5): 230-242.
  • Bieschke, J., Herbst, M., Wiglenda, T., Friedrich, R.P., Boeddrich, A., Schiele, F., Kleckers, D., Lopez del Amo, J.M., Grüning, B.A., Wang, Q., Schmidt, M.R., Lurz, R., Anwyl, R., Schnoegl, S., Fündrich, M., Frank, R.F., Reif, B., Günther, S., Walsh, D.M. and Wanker, E.E. (2011). Small-molecule conversion of toxic oligomers to nontoxic Œ≤-sheet‚Äìrich amyloid fibrils. Nat Chem Biol advance online publication.
  • Koffie, R.M., Hyman, B.T. and Spires-Jones, T.L. (2011). Alzheimer's disease: synapses gone cold. Mol Neurodegener 6(1): 63.
  • Kummer, M.P., Hermes, M., Delekarte, A., Hammerschmidt, T., Kumar, S., Terwel, D., Walter, J., Pape, H.C., Konig, S., Roeber, S., Jessen, F., Klockgether, T., Korte, M. and Heneka, M.T. (2011). Nitration of Tyrosine 10 Critically Enhances Amyloid beta Aggregation and Plaque Formation. Neuron 71(5): 833-844.
  • Rammes, G., Hasenjager, A., Sroka-Saidi, K., Deussing, J.M. and Parsons, C.G. (2011). Therapeutic significance of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in mediating the synaptotoxic effects of beta-amyloid oligomers on long-term potentiation (LTP) in murine hippocampal slices. Neuropharmacology 60(6): 982-990.
  • Selkoe, D.J. (2011). Resolving controversies on the path to Alzheimer's therapeutics. Nat Med 17(9): 1060-1065.
  • Sokolow, S., Luu, S.H., Nandy, K., Miller, C.A., Vinters, H.V., Poon, W.W. and Gylys, K.H. (2011). Preferential accumulation of amyloid-beta in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals (VGluT1 and VGluT2) in Alzheimer's disease cortex. Neurobiol Dis.
  • Wilcox, K.C., Lacor, P.N., Pitt, J. and Klein, W.L. (2011). Abeta oligomer-induced synapse degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Cell Mol Neurobiol 31(6): 939-948.
  • Benilova, I., Karran, E. and De Strooper, B. (2012). The toxic Abeta oligomer and Alzheimer's disease: an emperor in need of clothes. Nat Neurosci 15(3): 349-357.
  • Brouillette, J., Caillierez, R., Zommer, N., Alves-Pires, C., Benilova, I., Blum, D., De Strooper, B. and Buee, L. (2012). Neurotoxicity and memory deficits induced by soluble low-molecular-weight amyloid-beta1-42 oligomers are revealed in vivo by using a novel animal model. J Neurosci 32(23): 7852-7861.
  • Dinamarca, M.C., Rios, J.A. and Inestrosa, N.C. (2012). Postsynaptic Receptors for Amyloid-beta Oligomers as Mediators of Neuronal Damage in Alzheimer's Disease. Front Physiol 3: 464.
  • Larson, M.E. and Lesne, S.E. (2012). Soluble Abeta oligomer production and toxicity. J Neurochem 120 Suppl 1: 125-139.
  • Kummer, M.P. and Heneka, M.T. (2014). Truncated and modified amyloid-beta species. Alzheimers Res Ther 6(3): 28.
  • Parsons, C.G., Ruitenberg, M., Freitag, C.E., Sroka-Saidi, K., Russ, H. and Rammes, G. (2015). MRZ-99030 - A novel modulator of Abeta aggregation: I - Mechanism of action (MoA) underlying the potential neuroprotective treatment of Alzheimer's disease, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Neuropharmacology 92: 158-169.
  • Rammes, G., Gravius, A., Ruitenberg, M., Wegener, N., Chambon, C., Sroka-Saidi, K., Jeggo, R., Staniaszek, L., Spanswick, D., O'Hare, E., Palmer, P., Kim, E.M., Bywalez, W., Egger, V. and Parsons, C.G. (2015). MRZ-99030 - A novel modulator of Abeta aggregation: II - Reversal of Abeta oligomer-induced deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) and cognitive performance in rats and mice. Neuropharmacology 92: 170-182.

GAL-101 References: